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Artemy Eagles
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Inflammatory Disease



When your body encounters an offending agent (like viruses, bacteria or toxic chemicals) or suffers an injury, it activates your immune system. Your immune system sends out its first responders: inflammatory cells and cytokines (substances that stimulate more inflammatory cells).




inflammatory disease


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Detailed fact sheets are intended for physicians and individuals with specific questions about sexually transmitted diseases. Detailed fact sheets include specific testing and treatment recommendations as well as citations so the reader can research the topic more in depth.


But in some diseases, like arthritis, your body's defense system -- your immune system -- triggers inflammation when there are no invaders to fight off. In these autoimmune diseases, your immune system acts as if regular tissues are infected or somehow unusual, causing damage.


In Crohn's disease, any part of your small or large intestine can be involved. It may involve multiple segments, or it may be continuous. Crohn's disease most commonly affects the last part of the small intestine (ileum) and parts of the colon.


Inflammatory bowel disease symptoms vary, depending on the severity of inflammation and where it occurs. Symptoms may range from mild to severe. You are likely to have periods of active illness followed by periods of remission.


See your doctor if you experience a persistent change in your bowel habits or if you have any of the signs and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease usually isn't fatal, it's a serious disease that, in some cases, may cause life-threatening complications.


Several gene mutations have been associated with IBD. Heredity also seems to play a role in that IBD is more common in people who have family members with the disease. However, most people with IBD don't have this family history.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of one or more of the upper reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Untreated PID can cause scar tissue and pockets of infected fluid (abscesses) to develop in the reproductive tract, which can cause permanent damage.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs. It most often occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria spread from your vagina to your uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.


The signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease can be subtle or mild. Some women don't experience any signs or symptoms. As a result, you might not realize you have it until you have trouble getting pregnant or you develop chronic pelvic pain.


The signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease might be mild and difficult to recognize. Some women don't have any signs or symptoms. When signs and symptoms of PID are present, they most often include:


Untreated pelvic inflammatory disease might cause scar tissue and pockets of infected fluid (abscesses) to develop in the reproductive tract. These can cause permanent damage to the reproductive organs.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is typically an ascending infection, spreading from the lower genital tract. The majority of cases of PID are related to a sexually transmitted infection. This activity describes the cause, pathophysiology, and presentation of PID and highlights the interprofessional team's role in its management.


Objectives:Identify the etiology of pelvic inflammatory disease.Review the presentation of pelvic inflammatory disease. Outline the treatment and management options available for Pelvic inflammatory disease.Describe interprofessional team strategies for improving care coordination and outcomes in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease.Access free multiple choice questions on this topic.


Other cervical microbes, including Mycoplasma genitalium, have been thought to contribute to the disease. Additionally, pathogens responsible for bacterial vaginosis (Peptostreptococcus species, Bacteroides species), respiratory pathogens (Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus), and enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, group B Streptococci) have been implicated in acute PID. They account for approximately 15% of cases overall.[4][5][6]


Infection of the upper female genital tract leads to inflammatory damage, resulting in scarring, adhesions, and partial or total obstruction of the Fallopian tubes. This can result in loss of the ciliated epithelial cells along the fallopian tube lining, resulting in impaired ovum transport and increased risk for infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Additionally, adhesions can lead to chronic pelvic pain.[7]


All women with suspected PID should have a pelvic examination to evaluate cervical discharge, cervical motion tenderness, uterine tenderness, adnexal tenderness, or masses. The diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is clinical. It is defined by lower genital tract inflammation such as cervical discharge, an increased number of white blood cells on wet prep, or cervical friability.


As stated before, the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is primarily clinical. PID should be considered in any sexually active young woman with pelvic or low abdominal pain and evidence of genital tract tenderness on exam. While laboratory tests may help confirm the diagnosis, NAAT testing typically can take several hours to days to result depending on your institution. Negative results do not exclude the diagnosis. An ultrasound or CT without findings of PID does not exclude the diagnosis. Therefore, early and prompt treatment should be started based on clinical suspicion.[10][11][12]


In their review, Giacomini et al. [8] reported the inflammatory nature of endometriosis and the important role played by immune cells. Strong support for a causal role of inflammatory pathways in endometriosis establishment comes from the investigation of genetic factors linked to the disease. In their paper, the authors focus on the identification of the immune inflammatory targets and novel therapeutic approaches. Since the early 1980s, studies have reported the genetic component of endometriosis, when an increased prevalence of endometriosis were observed in first-degree relatives of subjects with endometriosis. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shed light on the genetic variants involved in the susceptibility of endometriosis. Among them, two main cellular pathways appear to be crucial in the development of the disease. The first one is the MAPK pathway, which has been suggested to favor endometriosis induction and progression via several mechanisms of (i) apoptosis, angiogenesis affecting cell growth, (ii) migration and invasion, (iii) production of inflammatory molecules and ROS, and (iv) progesterone resistance. Possible novel therapeutic approaches could be developed by the regulation of this pathway, and specifically by its inhibition, as suggested by the authors [8]. The other extensively described pathway is the WNT pathway, which plays an important role in organ homeostasis and in endometriosis. Several mechanisms were suggested to affect the disease: (i) migration and invasion, (ii) neovascularization, and (iii) production of inflammatory cytokines. Considering the WNT pathway as therapeutic target, several options could be considered, such as B-catenin degradation, the inhibition of WNT ligand binding, and transcriptional activity inhibition.


Recent studies, reviewed by Jiang et al. [10], have demonstrated both the ability of endometriosis to induce microbiota changes and the ability of antibiotics to treat endometriosis. The human microbiota includes all the microorganisms living in and on the body. Healthy microbiota regulates factors involved in maintaining a normal peritoneal environment and ectopic cell clearance. Dysbiosis, defined as imbalance or impairment of the microbiota which can be due to a combination of increased pathogenic microorganism and/or loss of probiotics, contributes to the dysregulation of factors responsible for endometriosis onset and progression. The gut flora is one of the richest and most studied microbiotas; it plays a crucial role in maintaining physiological gastroenteric function and is a key regulator in many inflammatory conditions.


If your doctor determines that you have pelvic inflammatory disease, they may run more tests and check your pelvic area for damage. PID can cause scarring on your fallopian tubes and permanent damage to your reproductive organs.


Jessica is a clinical pharmacist with a doctorate in pharmacy. Her mission is to educate the public about disease prevention and healthy living. As a marathon runner and Ironman triathlete, she has personal reasons to keep herself fit and professional interests to share her knowledge with others.


Inflammation plays a vital role in healing, but chronic inflammation may increase the risk of various diseases, including some cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, periodontitis, and hay fever.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) will not remove the cause of inflammation, but they can help relieve pain, swelling, fever, and other symptoms. They do this by countering an enzyme that contributes to inflammation.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) refers to infection of the uterus (womb), fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus) and other reproductive organs that causes symptoms such as lower abdominal pain. It is a serious complication of some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. PID can damage the fallopian tubes and tissues in and near the uterus and ovaries. PID can lead to serious consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy in the fallopian tube or elsewhere outside of the womb), abscess formation, and chronic pelvic pain. 041b061a72


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